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question because they went to work on the trade to make donation. they were smaller than the union to start with, roughly 10 million people compared to the indians 22. is already tough road. but a military fact isn't as much paid attention to this it should be as 4 million of those 10 million people were black and enslave. when it came time to mobilize for war, they didn't have access to 10 million people. they have access to avoid population of 16 million, half of women, many underage peers to the demographics are tough to start with. >> host: how many white males at that point in the confederate south? obviously that was the base. >> guest: i try to figure out how many member voting age. the link between voting a soldier and was typed in an 18th century. i figure there's one point at you voting age white men. military age starts out smaller than not. 18 to 35. by the end of the war, 1555. >> host: what advantages going into the civil war, besides caught. we hear about cotton. we've heard about that for years has one of the advantages. were the advantages for the south? .. themselves to ot
of the use of naval forces by the union and confederate armies during the civil war. now on booktv. he reports on the impact that each navy made during the war, from union naval support of numerous battles, including vicksburg and new orleans to the confederates use of naval mines and the militaristic deployment of a submarine. it's a little under an hour. >> good evening, everyone. last time we met here on this very stage to talk about the civil war, jim, you are looking to finishing touches on your new book. you are preparing your publication as well. now i have to do this the way they do it on the talk shows. now, james mcpherson "war on the waters" and craig, the civil war at sea, very handsomely done, are both out. that's good because we get to resume our -- we barely scratched the surface. let's get right to it because we spoke for an hour last time, we got to about january 1862. so i will assume you all know about 1861, and get to something that jim pointed out. that was rather interesting. is that 150 years ago this month, besides all the other things that were going on, the re
commission. mary frances berry. c-span2. start with compared to the union 22. that was a tough road to hoe but if it is not as much paid attention to because 4 million wear black or slave so when it came time to mobilize the not have access to 10 million but a white population of 6 million, half for women and half for under age. the demographics were tough to start. >>host: how many white males? >>guest: i tried to figure out how many of of voting age. that link was pretty tight and with the voting age white men with 18 through 35 by the end it is 18 to 55. >>host: what advantages besides cotton, we hear about that for years what are the advantages? >> as lee said they were overwhelmed by the industrial north of slave labor south than two-thirds of the capital is with enslaved human beings. they had to ship out across the embargo. and then they could list the things that they don't have. with a lot of faith just says they made the united states when it was they could secede to make this other country in independent to build a nation states on the basis of cotton and slaves. they tal
where made during the war, from union naval support of numerous battles, including vicksburg and new orleans to the confederate use of naval mines and the deployment of a submarine. it's a little under an hour. [applause] >> good evening, everyone. last time we met here on this very stage, to talk about the story of the civil war at sea and on the rivers, jim, you were putting the finishing touches on your new book. craig, you were preparing four book for publication as well, and now both dish have to do this the way they do on the talk shows -- so, now, james mcpherson's war on the waters, the union and confederate navies, 1861 to 1865, and craig's civil war at sea, both very handsomely done, and it's good because we get to resume our conversation. we barely broke the surface. let's get right to it. because we spoke for an hour last time and we got to about january of 1862. so i'll assume you all know about 1861. and get to something that jim pointed out in his book, which i found rather interesting, and that is that 150 years ago this month, eye side from all the other things going
of the logic of this was in the states that have already succeeded from the union, but the prospect of the country as a whole falling apart of the federal government didn't assert its power and its authority, the west coast there were some secessionist sentiments and in the midwest we can talk about new york becoming a free port of entry like britain and germany. so we look back knowing the result of all of this which of course led to the emergence of the nation states with much greater powers reached is a precarious it was for a long period of time but it's also important to recognize the slave rights in terms of the civil war it was a broad state right settlement but the only state that seceded from the union were slave states and i don't think that is significant, too. there is no way of understanding secession and state rights outside of the question. >> prisoner steve, the nitze fusion proclamation committed to put an end to all the discussion and any existing remnants of slavery? >> it didn't. it was a very important moment because the united states, the lincoln administration
of this was not just the states that had already seceded from the union, by the prospect of the country as a whole falling apart if the federal government didn't assert its power and its authority. the west coast, there was some secessionist sentiment. in the midwest, there was talk about new york being a free port of entry like britain and germany. we look back knowing the result of all of this, which, of course, led to the emergence, really, of a nation state for the first time, and one with much greater powers and reach than it had before, and you can forget how procariuos the union was for a long period of time, but i think it's also important to recognize, and this is about state rights and slavery in terms of the civil war. there was a broad state right sentiment, but the only states that seceded from the union was slave states, and i don't think that's insignificant too. there's no way of understanding secession and state rights outside the slavery question. >> host: professor hahn, 1863, the emancipation proke clay mages, -- proclamation, did it put an end to any discussion and any existin
-father union, and that we may have moved away from that in society, and in many ways we have moved away from that in our understanding and the law and so on of what marriage -- what a relationship needs to do to qualify for marriage. we moved away from consummation for a marriage to be tested somewhat, we moved from that. i'm not a psychologist, but a philosopher. i animal -- analyze the arguments and show where the arguments go wrong. >> host: that's fair. i didn't mean to put you on the spot. >> guest: sure. what do you think the people on my side are missing? why do you think -- because you, -- >> host: it's not hard for me to understand why a gay man and people who are thinking about this as a question of how are we going to treat the gay friends, neighbors, fellow citizens, family members, would be for gay marriage; right? i think it's become a symbol for many people, even many people who probably are not even going to enter gay marriages. it's become a symbol of the idea of respect for gay people and their relationship. >> guest: right. i want to interrupt you there because sometimes w
to go into world war ii, when to speak with the union, and he said, look, we have realizes that if you're a does not sustain free enterprise, the united states cannot gain free enterprise itself. so if you're looking for a motive for this, that is really what it comes back to. >> is there something distinctive about the american state the positions it to do this? of the states occurred in the wind. >> you really have to understand this historically because if you ask the question of globalization being inevitable and you looked at the first half of 20th-century, it looked like it was impossible. you have empires that are fragmenting globalization. have two world wars. yet the oppression. in the question by the second world war is, is globalization at all possible? can you have a global capitol system? and it was only made possible because the american state had a specific capacity to take that on some specific capacities and the interest because you have to remember that after the first world war the u.s. was already a dominant economic power in the world by far. industrial power. alre
. somewhere among 25 went to soviet union. during the entire war, less than 2% went to china. so you see, china was very important, but in terms of material support was very small. that was very ironic. has lot to do with rivalry, policy, priorities, logistical difficulties. but overall it's national policy, very important. the time he of course doesn't work the chinese way because americans don't decide to go back to asia. >> how many chinese died during world war ii? >> the numbers vary. the most accepted number during the seven years, eight years of war, remember world war ii lasted a lot longer in china, was 15 million. >> 15 million? >> 50 million. >> that's on par or close to what the soviet union lost? >> soviet union lost more. anymore concentrated way because stalin -- german policy and eastern front, the other area. >> japan lost -- >> most of these 50 million casualties were civilians in china. so that's the accepted number. >> maochun yu, professor, what do you teach your at the naval academy speak with i teach mostly military history, world war ii, and modern china, east asi
that the year began with the american republic in grave danger. the union army was struggling to regrow virtually overnight from a few thousand men scattered across the continent, to more than half a billion. the inexperienced officers, the command of these were all volunteers was stymied by the sheer size of the breakaway confederate states of america. which covered a state larger than the entire european territory, conquered by napoleon. linke's closest advisor was secretary of state william henry seward. seward says that even smart people fail to see the difficulty of the union's task. they didn't apprehend the vast extent of the rebellion as he put it. military operations to be successful must be on a scale practically unknown in the art of four. yet the war department was an corrupt shambles, its chief on the verge of being fired. the confederacy also fielded a powerful economic weapon, near total control of the global continents apply. this was a time when textiles were driving the industrial revolution and cotton was perhaps the world's most important single commodity. the south
, collapse of the soviet union, the chief lifeline for so many. you see the expansion of the democracy itself. and so from the period of 1974 to about 2005 was a moment of tremendous democratic growth. but then i say 2005 because since 2005, we've seen a decline in political pluralism around the world. six consecutive years that has but i wanted to do this book was examined by that wise. unless you find is that these regimes understand that in a more globally interconnected world that the past forms of coercion can no longer be the blood tools that were so familiar from the 20th century. but think of mouse resolution or campaign, stalin's gulag, killing fields. now it's actually a much more subtle form of repression that are used by these regimes and they are refashioning dictatorship for a modern age. so that's the main thrust. and every country traveled to come i always meet with two groups of people. i meet with people serving the regime come is serving a dictator, political advisors i.d. labs, karami's and also his meeting with people trying to offend appeared at his meeting with the stu
organizations, organized people into unions in a way that we never had before or since. that was the greatest wave of unionization the united states ever seen. in the depths of the depression. think about the difference between then and now. in the depths of the depression millions of americans decided they wanted to join a union and they did so on a scale we had never had before or since. the second big organization was the socialist party's and the third was the american communist party who were coordinated with the cio and the joint membership and so on. very powerful organizations parallel to what you have in europe but after the war everything changed. if i could take a moment to explain why. roosevelt comes to power, the depression is underway three years, he runs on a balanced budget proposal, he gets into office and everyone tells him the economic crisis is worse than anything they have ever seen which is clearly true. they don't know what to do and it is getting worse. something has to be done. this might have been an interesting conversation but there are also people marching in the
's lurch to the left and its inability to view the soviet union objectively and to concede that it was a clear and present danger. the case demonstrated the intimate connection between communism and liberalism, quote, when i took out my little fling and aimed at communism, chambers wrote in "witness," i also did something else. what i hit was the forces of that great socialist revolution which in the name of liberalism is been inching its ice cap. the one x liberal who saw the connection clearly was president ronald reagan. who awarded the medal of freedom. asked why, mr. reagan replied, 100 years ago people will ever forgotten the details but i want them to remember that out his went to jail as a traitor and whitaker chambers was honored by his fellow citizens. his conviction verify anti communism as a potent element of american politics. it gave bill buckley and other and other conservative they caused by which to unite traditional conservatives and libertarians against the common enemy, liberalism. historian george nash and others argued persuasively that without any com
and half after he made the announcement of the "state of the union" speech of the goal to get to the moon meeting with a reluctant leader of nasa, a james webb. listen closely see if you can get a sense how a real president pushes his government. >> host: is it really that hard even for a strong president to move the mountain called the government? >> apparently left left it is wonderful to get the point* across. there is no way this would be a great scientific experiment. the science of pfizer's for interested in the dimensions. he had a clear goal. >> he is leaving no doubt. with the two advisor stock back to hem and that is not easy to do. >> host: he liked that. >> i give him credit to hire people to talk back. it is good conversations. the book also gives a transcript of a conversation one year later. the smart people have reversed their position. is it too dangerous? the advisers said we will spin off amazing technology. we will define the sixties it is another great conversation. >> host: i love the change of mr. webb one year later the president asks this is a top priority? >> abs
of communism substantiated then by the evil empire of the soviet union and the west, in his purgatory letter to his children, which had been mentioned already, chambers said that in communism he saw the concentrated evil of our time. now, he looked with kindred eyes upon the enormity of communism. indeed, conservatives of all stripes could agree about that hideous this of the communist system, which is why the world of the cold war was, in many ways, a tidier, more manichean world than the one that we inhabit. whatever else might be said about it, the soviet union provided a sort of negative rallying point, something that conservatives of all sorts could define themselves against, and i wonder about today, what about today, how do conservatives to find themselves. well, that is a question that i hope the panel is going to conjure with. before i turn things over to them, i want to make just briefly to final points. one of which is -- has been raised a couple of times. if conservatives were virtually at one in regarding the freedom biking etiology of parmesan with repugnance, they were not, i
, and said, how can it be the head of the soviet union dies, and we have no contingency plan. it was criminal, said the president. the truth was the united states and the other western nations had very little idea of what was happening behind the iron curtain. two years later at the first summit meeting of the cold war era at geneva in 1955, the united states still did not know who was running the soviet union. they sent four leaders, one tall white man in a white suit with a white goatee who looked like colonel sanders from kentucky fried chicken, clearly, a figure head. the head of the red army, ike's ally in defeating the nazis in world war ii. eisenhower spent his son, john, to do some spying. subdued and shaken, just whispered, "things are not as they seem." presidentize -- president eisenhower found out who was in charge on the fifth day of the conference. the big pier of the nuclear age was a surprise attack. proposed each country allow the other country's reconnaissance plane to fly overhead to detect preparations for a sneak attack. the soviet delegation initially seemed to like the
time included members of labor unions, farm groups and civil rights organizations. included representative not just of the medical profession but of the people who need it and use health care. a woman named florence greenberg traveled from chicago, illinois to washington to offer her testimony. she was a member of the women's auxiliary of the steelworkers organizing committee, spending her days working in communities around the steel mills. greenberg told the audience at the national health conference that she had come to offer them a different picture of chicago. just steps away from the comfortable headquarters of the american medical association, tenements, a 6 chicago where people struggled with terrible health conditions related to poverty and unemployment and struggled to obtain basic medical care. greenberg told the conference of the grossly overcrowded county hospital, the city's only public hospital with local describes as a death house, a single overcrowded private hospital served the entire african-american community of the south side. chicago's outpatient clinics
of california and texas into the american union. mexico refuses to surrender despite the victories, so he decides to send general winfield scott to invade mexico. he bombards the veracruz and travels through central mexico securing a capital in the fall of 1847. in the eyes of americans it was sort of a foreign conclusion that their side when and win easily because most are byrd a host of racist beliefs about mexican men foremost among them being that mexican and one lazy and cowardly to fight. in point of fact mexican troops fought very hard, as you can see , very few images, so it's rare when you find one. you can get a sense. mexico lost all of these battles and ultimately lost the military side of the war because they have vastly inferior weapons. their leader was terrible. mexico's government was in turmoil. there were broke. there were various panels were there was no money even making it to the army to support itself . because hostile net of american tribes in the north of mexico has so ravaged on the mexican that there was very little will to resist. now, on the mexican side most
made the announcement in the state of the union speech of the goal to get to the moon by the end of the decade. he is meeting with a reluctant leader of nasa, james webb. listen closely and see if you can get a sense of how a real president pushes his government. >> ellen fitzpatrick, is it really that hard for even a strong president to move this mountain called the government? >> apparently so. i think it is wonderful to see him really getting his point across here. there was no way this was going to be one of the great scientific experiments. and obviously, advisers were interested in all of the different intellectual dimensions of it. he had a very clear goal. >> he is leaving, there is no doubt about that. i give him credit for hiring people brave enough to talk to him. the book also gives the transcript of a conversation a year later. the smart people have almost reversed positions. he is saying it is too dangerous, should we think more about it. should we think more about the science about it. they are saying that we should spin off more great technology. it's another grea
that, you know, easy for the other guys to do. i understand that. but the problem in the european union is that there is only one dimension of union, and that is monetary union as opposed to fiscal union. and i think what's happened in greece, in spain, is that they benefited from low interest rates because of their reunion, and that meant that they allowed their fiscal policies to get out of line. so it's sort of just the reverse of the problem that we had here that we have here, which was okay, we can raise rates and cut them back. here, rates came down. so the discipline that would naturally occur disappeared when you have a union. >> i thought you at a different point. greece and spain and so forth, could borrow at german interest rates and they went kind of wild. the good old united states of america, we rent historically big deficits. we consumed without settling them. how is this all possible? because the chinese were happily loaning us money at very low interest rates. substitute the words the united states and greece, and china to germany and you have a world scale, the problem
was the beginning of the coup d'État, the soviet union. the cia spy plane was shot down over russia. the cia had suppressed a study showing the soviet antiaircraft missiles can now climb high enough to reach the u2, atlanta ike to believe the pilot would never be captured into a dive on the plane broke up or killed himself with a suicide pill. the russians captured the pilot, powers, khrushchev bloated and credit of the wicked american spies. that was the and. eisenhower was very depressed. i want to resign, he said his faithful assistant, when he came into the oval office after powers was captured and his cover story blown. ike bounced back. he always did, but after nearly eight years of constant attention he was exhausted. ike threatened to use nuclear weapons. he never told anyone whether he actually would use them. he could not, of course or his threat would no longer be credible. talk about the loneliness. ike me all about the burden, from the north african campaign in 1943 to d-day to the conquest of germany, and the liberation of europe. ike smoke four packs a day as a general. he quit co
but the problem with the european union fed is monetary union's as opposed to the fiscal union. they benefited from the low interest-rate and that meant they allow the policies to get out of line. just the reverse of the problem that we have here. we could raise rates but the discipline that would occur. >> i thought you would make a different point*. . . there in the midst of deciding if they want more or if they want less. the euro could not survive some kind of central control. more sense of discipline before the crisis than they have head which means some kind of limit on fiscal policy for one thing but it goes beyond fiscal policy. spain had a pretty good fiscal policy. they managed to get in big trouble pouring a lot of money into building houses and that had some kind of oversight of economic policy more generally as part of the price of being in a union. and they wanted to make the union -- without the economic union. it doesn't work. so, the proposals are out there and i think they basically want to move toward more economic union and the cost to do that takes a change in a lot of deb
republic in grave danger. the union armies were struggling to grow virtually overnight from a few thousand men scattered across the continent to more than half a million. the inexperienced officers rushed into command of the ross volunteers were stymied by the sheer size of the breakaway confederate states of america which covered a space larger than the entire european territory conquered by napoleon. lincoln's closest adviser was secretary of state william henry seward. seward said that even they fail to see the difficulty of the union's task cannot apprehending the vast extent of the rebellion as he put it. military operations to be successful must be on a scale hitherto practically unknown in the art of war. >> the second year of the civil war, the strange federal government and we can in forces. 1862 and abraham lincoln's rise to greatness at 830 eastern, part of four days of book tv this weekend and read through christmas day on c-span2. >> with just days left in 2012, many publications are putting together their year-in list of notable books. book tv will feature several of these li
of the union, 1860-61. more specifically will talk about however him again rejected any meaningful compromise. the country was gripped by a section of crisis because many southerners feared lincoln and his republican party. it was a north party and proudly so. it did not have a significant seven connection. lincoln was elected without a single lessor although for many of the 15 / states and only four of the border states did he get any popular votes and then nearly a handful. for the first time in the nation's history there will be taking over the executive branch of the national government. the republican party was proudly in northern party, during its brief existence in the mid 1850's damage its rhetoric and assault of the south, and the south major social institution racial slavery. and their determination that is the republicans' determination to well the north into a unit that could win a national election without any southern support, the republicans repeatedly condemned the south as on progressive, undemocratic, even unamerican. this party on the threshold of the presidency. those peop
in january 11, in a in a state of the union address, roosevelt spoke to the american people about the war and especially the piece the allies plan to establish after fascism. he said the one supreme object is for the future can be summed up in one word, security. that means not only physical security which provides safety from attacks by aggressors, and it's also economic security and social security. the individual political right upon which the united states had been built, was not argued, were necessary, but not sufficient to carry t. true freedom and security. fdr announced an economic liberates, which is sometimes called the second bill of rights. it included the right to a job and a living wage, direct housing, education and security in old age and their right to adequate medical care in the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health. so we cannot fdr mishearing florence greenberg speech, we here at kos and his second bill of rights. the idea of economic and social rights is an essential supplement to political right started as far back as the french revolution. the idea of a righ
bring what polk wants, which is peace in the securing of california and texas into the union. mexico refuses to surrender, despite the victories. so polk decides to invade central mexico. and he bombards veracruz and travel throughcentral mexico, securing the capital in the fall of 1847. in the eyes of americans, it was sort of a poor pollution that their side would win. and win easily. most u.s. citizens harbored racist beliefs about mexican man. foremost being that they were cowardly to fight. in fact, mexican troops fought hard come, as you can see in this rare print. you can actually get a sense of what their rendition wasn't what was happening. mexico lost all of these battles and ultimately lost the military side of the board because they had interior weapons and their leadership was terrible. mexico's government was internal. they were broke. there were various battles where there were no money. the army was supporting itself. because hostile american tribes in new mexico had so rabidly acted, there was little development in the northern mexico. now, on the mexican side, most
union and the nato or meant to keep russia out and the germans down now they are triumphant economically. germany may not have the solution to every economic problem but to berlin is the point of arbitration for all of them so the question arises and this goes back to the geography with russia needing the buffer zone in eastern europe remember the collapse didn't indian security facing ray it faced invasions' with will lead vehicle lithuanians, french, german throughout history. so we're back with a regional power flashed with natural gas. a rich and wealthy germany, poland between them that has -- >> it has gas under that many get an energy power in the century. this is living in geography. your argument about russia and russia's in security would be that it's too flat. half the world's longitudes but it's indefensible, it runs north, south so they don't unite the country and had less people than bangladesh. 141 million people, bangladesh has more. so vladimir putin sent up near imperialism on the deepak geographical and security and that's how we should understand not as a madman hour
. with the intent later on to invade the soviet union. he hated communism. this is one thing that was really part of his agenda. he was actually going to invade france in the wintertime, ma in november-december. he had to put that off because -- spent of 1939? >> of 1939. because of the invasion plans fell into the hands of the french and the british, soy put off the invasion until may, and he came up with a new plan. the old plant actually had been similar to world war i. it was going to come through belgium, along the channel coast, and down into paris. but he had to completely rearrange that, and he came up with you do, one of his generals, to think through belgium, but send the majority of these armored power through the our danforth further south and coming behind any french and british armies that went into belgium once the war started. and this worked perfectly, beginning may 10 of 1940» and the british and the french did what the germans expected, asz soon as the germans went io belgium, the french and the british went in. the armored divisions came in behind, and force really the cream
with the confederate army. on the union's side, not a blood relative but a man who had a formative influence on her life joined the union army and was involved with some notable battles. on the first lady's father's side, there is an ancestor. sometimes making these connections is difficult. someone who i think is an ancestor who joined the union army around the time slavery was ended. kind of making that link was unclear but not an easy thing. the records are there in terms of the civil war service of those ancestors and the descendants didn't know about that. >> you talk a lot about dna testing. with a book like this and your research have been possible before dna testing? >> good question. it certainly helped. we would have had circumstantial evidence that would have suggested the first lady's white ancestors came from the shield's family that owned millvinia but there would be no way to know for sure. 20 first century technology is what helped unravel -- ten years ago i wouldn't have been able to write this book in the way that it is now. >> any more questions? we have a little time left. i jus
union meant that the future of communism is decided, i think, however long it takes, it will collapse in china too. i believe, yet his tragic sense of life would have kept him from being poly anish about western civilization. human societies like human beings live by faith and die when faith dies, he wrote. certainly, in europe he would see that faith dying. similarly, he would have watched faith in that case, in communism, die in the ussr, and we are seeing faith in communism die in china. would he see faith dying slowly now in our own country, while yet it burns so brightly in so much of the muslim world, or would he see the extraordinary expansion in africa, latin america, or evangelicalism in our own country as a sign today of new hope? i leave you that for the discussion period. thank you. [applause] >> i want to begin by quoting stockdale who said who am i, and what am i doing here? the first thing that occurs to me is perhaps i had been invited because i am the owner of a hat that looks remarkably like the one that chambers' models on the cover of the program. [laughter] it's p
the soviet union. so states like mississippi, states like georgia and texas and florida and southern california, arizona, north carolina are all being transformed in the post-world war ii period by this historic shift in population and political influence. just think about it. really does three from 1964 to two dozen eight could be thought of as kind of the carried of sun belt dominance in american presidential history. if you think about every president elected from 1964-2008 comes from a state of the sun belt. lyndon johnson from texas, richard nixon from california, gerald ford was never elected. he was not even elected vice president. he was a michigan. jimmy carter from georgia. ronald reagan from california. first george bush, texas by a connecticut. bill clinton from arkansas, and the second bush from texas. so 2008 is in some ways a watershed election. it is this 40 year period of sun belt dominance. and there were issues that are critical in the politics that develop, that came out of the sun belt. they tended to have a conservative task to them. they tended to be oriented a
than just roofless capitalism strong labor unions of course tax rates of the top and then a second era of financial capitalism, deregulation and capitalism and there's a widespread belief to talk to people. it explores the growth and the higher efficiency that must make everybody better off and it's not true. growth was slower in the second half and because the big instance stopped being spread to the general population or went to a handful of people at the top. the archetype is that they are actually setting it too low. it's not the 1 percent, it is the .1% for people that needed and in the earlier period, paul was absolutely right in the earlier period the quintile, every group in the population was growing but the bottom part was growing faster than the top. today it is not that way. gdp doesn't really give you a good measure of what is happening through the economy and the society. so, while that one-tenth of 1 percent has been doing very well, the median income is lower than it was a decade and a half ago. it is as low as it was two decades ago to go to the top. so, it's clear tha
conversation, and franklin came out close to tears and at that point elliott said, let's just go to union station, which is one of the only three people in town that would serve people of color in 1948. for he mat crystallizes why i enjoy studying law clerks. it's personalities, not only the justices and the clerk, clerks who have gone on to fame and fortune of their own. warren christopher, secretary of state, clerked for bill douglass. five law clerks who returned to the supreme court. i enjoy the stories as they shed light on these relationships. the stories shed light on the relationship between judicial attitudes and personalities and judicial behavior, and also because the supreme court clerkship is about, number one, when it comes to internships in this done there, and in 1998, when i was in graduate school, thinking about a clerk, i read a series of articles written by tony mauro about the law clerks -- the supreme court justices' law clerks hiring practice, and when the justices were not hiring very many women and were not hiring people of color. and those issues also important b
of japan and u.s. flag joined in solidarity. banners from every state in the union were hanging reminding each manufacturer that he was part of a union, industry of thousands that he was a vital member. at the center of all was a sea of balloons that was each tied with silk thread to the stem of a champagne glass. later with the toast under way the balloon's served another purpose the feeling would appear to rise up to raise class's in unison to elevate the celebration for their. it was also printed on american silk. like miniature silk scarves that under the glow of the chandeliers. devised by new york's most famous chef who was quite unintelligible. the banks had more familiar english. then there was skinner's speech, cherishing the recollection of the past to emulate their example. with a great deal of reminiscing to take place but they would help to put a flourishing cap on that topic. they're not only benefactors of the past but the future and they are also making history. >> two days later skinners on a train headed up the connecticut shoreline north to massachusetts. he visited thi
is that of california. former state government and then led into the union as a equal sovereign state. the government is not interested. the mormons ask for a huge swath he doesn't want to get d.c. doesn't like the word desert at. he doesn't want a mormon controlled state into the state of the union and so it is said the territory of utah is created. the u.s. government, the president fillmore was a point brigham young has the governor. >> he appoints him. >> how long that brigham young served as governor? >> he served six years as governor. spain was he the head of the church at the time? >> absolutely. >> was their political insight within the church and did he have rifles? >> not really he felt that he didn't have any rivals within the church especially after they get to utah. there are other people that put themselves forward as possible leaders after joseph smith's death, but at the time brigham young's faction of the church reaches utah, he has eliminated most dissent. in fact she brags that the church does not experience 10% of the dissent under his leadership as it had under joseph but he had
, david carrier, national association of federal credit unions. i'm curious who you feel should be securitizing mortgages, and if you feel it's the banks, why should we trust them after what just happened? i'd like to hear from each of you, actually, on that one. thank you. >> do you want me to start on that? >> were you trying to direct that to somebody in particular? >> all three. >> all right, bob, we'll give you first crack, and we'll keep our other comments brief, however. >> i would say it doesn't matter so much who does the securitization. i think i would be in favor of trying a rule where loans going into securitization have to meet certain common sense standards. other loans that don't meet those standards could be made, but they would have to be kept by the lender. the securitizer could be a sort of public utility, or it could be opened up to any firm that wanted to go into that business. i think there's going to be huge debate over what structure makes sense, and i think it's going to be very difficult for congress to decide what is the right formula. >> i think i con
announced we need to get done some work whittled we go down to the union station which happened to coin the bill on one of the few places in town that would serve people of color in 1948. for me, that crystallizes why i enjoyed studying bill wall clerks. it's personalities. it's personalities not only the justices but the clerks, clerks that have gone on to fame and fortune of their own. warren christopher, secretary of state for bill douglas we have had five clerks that have returned to the supreme court. i enjoy the story is as they should in the relationships on the enjoy them because they shed light on the relationship between the latitudes and personalities and the judicial behavior and also because the supreme court clerkship is about number one when it comes to internships in this country and in 1998, when i was in graduate school of thinking about doing my dissertation on clerks i had a series of articles in the usa today written by tony about the law clerks the supreme court justices will clerks hiring practices and one of the justices were not hiring very many women and were n
. another san francisco hero, organizer of the prostitutes union. she had good friends and clients among pacific cisco police force. one tip dropped one night to the thought that charlie gaines would be killed that night i cops and he was out speaking somewhere and she wanted him to get home as quickly as she could. this is a kind of violent tensions brewing within the city over reform. because he wanted to open up the police force to minorities. it was a very white department in those days and they were fighting it to the nail into gay and two women. so we owe mayor moscone a great day. he was assigned to san francisco, had been a basketball star at saint ignatius and he was seen as a traitor by many of the kids he grew up with, it became part of the power structure in this town. [inaudible] [inaudible] >> well, i want to say one thing. it's very illustrated with the chapter i read about critters commune because that gentleman, was a vietnam veteran. he came to the haight and was embraced here. he was obviously on the brink of a breakdown or worse. he does not spat on. he was not reject
doctors, greatly extending the power of the state into the private sphere kind producing a union with a medical profession that would be preferred rather easily in the third reich. in germany, one expert observe quote the more scientific a doctor's outlook was, the more politically naÏve he was. it was perhaps the highest and most sinister irony that american eugenicists, charles davenport, giddily wrote mary, daughter of railroad tycoon eh harriman, who headed the eugenics record office in new york, saying quote, the pfizer team is going to be a purifying conflagration one day, unquote. his prophecy would come true only 20 years later at a cost of millions. fairly easy for governments to manipulate public health, medicines and doctors for purposes of quote family planning. this soon led into policies about colonial possessions and citizenship. peoples of egypt, india, algeria and africa clearly did not fit the progress is a view of educated elite. and by their definitions, were close to quote life unworthy of life, unquote. but these trends would marinate for a decade. in the m
agencies, to open new markets for america's goods and services that will been fit every state in the union. -- that will benefit every state in the union. that's what i set out to do. i'm so close to getting it done. one senator is going to object. it's unfortunate, after all of the work that we've put into this, that they would stop this bill. i hope that the senator will reconsider his position on this. and i have an official request that i'm going to make at this and i have an official request that i'm going to make at this point. senate proceed to the immediate consideration of calendar number 536, s. 2215, that the committee reported substitute amendment be withdrawn, the durbin substitute amendment be agreed to, the bill as amend be read a third time and passed, the motion to reconsider be laid on the table with no intervening action or debate and statements relating to this be printed in the record as if read. the presiding officer: is there objection? a senator: mr. president? the presiding officer: the senator from pennsylvania is recognized. mr. toomey: i'd like to make a couple
when the soviet union was seen as a great adversary, but suddenly the bonding that occurs between our two countries because of this opportunity for russian kids to become american kids made a big difference in the way that americans looked at russians and the way that russians looked at americans, but this is a difference somehow the russian government wants to do away with as they take offense because we appropriately, i think, put in the russian trade agreement penalties for people who were involved in the imprisonment and death of the russian attorney sergei magnitsky in 2009. we were pretty specific about the narrow group this applied to . they are very specific about the 110,000 kids in orphanages in russia today that couldn't be adopted by american families because they have decided to use these kids as a political tool. it is the wrong thing to do. russia and the united states have had a tradition now that goes back to the end of the cold war of working together to find permanent homes for children without parents in our country. as recently as november of last year, november 1
, franklin's banalny planned the union. and so it went through the years. one of the great politicians of all time in this city was the may i don't have of albany. he had great success from the time he was elected in 1942 until he died in the hospital of emphysema in 1983. eleven terms, uninterrupted. and he -- that's the longest-running mayor of any si city in the united states. and he was very proud of that achievement. he was part of this fantastic political machine which took power away from the republicans in 1921. and the key figure in that was an irishman, dan o'connell. there was four o'connell brothers, and there were a couple of corning brothers. they founded the new democratic party, and they took the city back from the republicans that had run it since 1899. and when they took it in 1921, they never let go. it's still in power. the succession has been on through the deaths of the two people who were the key perpetuators of the machine. dan o'connell died in 1977 and his son ten years later, and after that came tommy wales who was chosen as successor, and now jerry jennings succeed
of california and texas into the american union. mexico refuses to surrender despite the fact trees of both taylor and carney. the poked pope is jesus and winfield scott to invade central mexico. he bombards veracruz and travels through central mexico securing the capital of the fall of 1847. now in the eyes of americans, it was sort of a foregone conclusion that there sideway because most u.s. citizens harbored a host of racist police of mexican men. foremost among them being mexican men were too lazy and cowardly to fight. in point of fact, mexican troops but very hard as you can see in this print, mexico produces few images of the were so it's great when you find them so you can get a sense of how their envisioning this happening. mexico lost all of these battles and ultimately lost the military side of the war because they had vastly inferior weapons. their leadership was terrible. mexico's government was in turmoil. they were broke. there were various battles for no money was even making it to the army to support his titles. because hostile, native american tribes in the north of mexic
squadrons of three b-52s every six hours towards the borders of the soviet union. every six hours a new squadron took off flying in circles around by the soviet border. there was a movie called "fail safe" based on a novel called "fail safe," and there's also dr. strangelove. stanley's brilliant and funny. i saw the movie and read it. i didn't know i was about to be in it, and these three planes in a squadron, each carried four hydro jen bomb. each hydro jen bomb was 75 times more powerful than dropped on hiroshima that ended world war ii. you add the four together, there's 3 # 00 times more powerful. each, four hydrogen bombs, and on the way to the soviet union, though we didn't need gas that much, the tankers from the american bases that we had, and we still have, i believe, the nuclear submarine base, which is near catty, but the air base was turnedded back over to the spanish government, and this is, by the way, one of the reasons why most of the people in the baa sigh, their -- embassy, their job was to be cozy with the spanish government. i was one of the few people, else when you
the union. will was so great about the great compromise? >> well most people would say they have only a vague recollection from high school. there was a crisis in 1850. the nature of the crisis was this. the country went to the brink of the civil war. most of the political culture and most americans thought the war was great to take place but the deep south was going to succeed and they were closer to the secession than most americans today even realize. certainly the deep south state. texas was arming other southern states were sending. had there been a collision with began in 1850 wouldn't have begun in charleston would have begun in santa fe mexico y? because texas did its own imperial ambitions to move westward supported by the slave holding south and to invade the new mexico territory. there were many other parts of the crisis with or not the last would be free. in 1850 the south was mother eternized, southern nationalism was at the peak. jefferson davis in 1850 said if the southern confederacy was to be formed now it was ready to accept the presidency of its. the north on the ot
of those are by the united states and the soviet union. the united states tested about 200 at tonic and hydrogen bombs in the atmosphere during that period. in june of 1962, when carson spoke was being serialized in "the new yorker," the united states tested 10 nuclear. one every three days while "silent spring" was being serialized in "the new yorker." i want to read a little bit for my book. and there's a little bit of carson here. i'll try to identify that for you. this is a little bit about how that connection was made in the book. three long excerpts from "silent spring" rendon weekly issues of "the new yorker" beginning on june 16, 1962. abu abridged, person story began in a magazine almost word for word as it was in the book with the short for betting fable that would become one of the great set pieces in american literature. in it, carson imagined a nameless town in the heart of america, will always seem to live in harmony with the surrounding. the safety of the base in every direction by mashburn fields and cold clear writing trust seems is home to an abundance of wildlife.
it or not the day before he left it out of message from the union station in baltimore saying they had a package for us. we wound down to get it. it was a cocker spaniel dog in a crate sent all the way from texas, black-and-white spotted and her little girl tricia 6-year-old girl named him checkers. the kids love the dog and i want to say this right now there is this charlton heston among us all a regardless of what they say about it. that is of course the central thing that nixon talks about and what gets the name for the speech itself. nixon was very knowingly taking a line from fdr's famous speech and nixon thought it would be great to kind of like make the democrats mad by taking their great leaders onwards and flipping them around to defend himself in what nixon is doing throughout the speech is very clearly that he is divorcing the populist tradition which is rooted in the struggle in the late 19th century among small farmers, and trying to channel their hatred of banks and especially real estate people, who are kind of keeping the small guy down, keeping the small farmer in the state of b
and incredibly radical document and there's a plebiscite in pennsylvania. the unionization in a sense of the militias is what gets a yes vote in some ways and then the constitution basically they say you know how we were talking about being radical place in the declaration? we will back that down a bit. the constitution is a different revolution and things go back and forth from there. >> we should open the floor to questions and you have written seven books. i have always found one of the most disappointing moments in my life is when i finished writing a book and i had to start over again and sometimes i don't have an idea of. what is the next bob sullivan book? 's we will be here for the next book reading. and i mean it. i'm a tremendous admirer and i think everyone of your books is a revelation. e.u. are so entertaining and learning at the same time in your extraordinary. >> i just read his books, i'm not kidding. i am trying to write a book and it's so depressing. it's so depressing. i can't begin to tell you. i'm trying to write a book and for 23 years i've been trying not to wri
that of california. former state government and then be let into the union has an equal, sovereign state. the u.s. government is not interested. the mormons ask for a huge swath of territory in the southwest. u.s. government does not want to give them that much land, does not like the word, does not really want to let a mormon controlled state into the union demand so instead the territory of utah is created. the u.s. government do what president fell more does appointed brigham young as his first governor. >> the appoints. >> he appoints. >> how long did he serve as governor? >> he served six years. >> was the head of the mormon church at the same time. >> absolutely. >> was their political infighting within the mormon church? >> not really. he saw to it that he did not have any significant rivals. there were people who put themselves forward as possible leaders after his death, but by the time brigham young infection reaches utah he has eliminated most dissent. he brags that the church does not experience 10% of the dissent under his lead. he rolls with a much firmer and. fifty-eight children
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